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Free Diplomacy Essays

Human rights are the rights in which all the human beings are entitled by virtue of their being as a human (Manchester University Press, 2001). The concept of the human rights itself is an abstract. However, when it is applied, it has the direct and enormous impact on the daily life of the people in the world. How the human rights applied in the broader circumstance is really having a long journey.

Until in 1945, after the World War II, the United Nations (UN) was established as one of the effort to uphold the human rights to encourage the governments in promoting and guarding the human rights. Human rights are a central element of international law and also the UN Charter’s broad approach for the international peace and security (Freivalds, 2003).

Previously, the human rights activities were seriously hampered by the focus on the principles of the non-interference and the national sovereignty that cited in the charter. But now the focus is shifting from the sovereignty and rights of the states and regimes, to the security and rights of the individual. The shift is necessarily to address the serious and large scale violations of human rights and humanitarian law that are often committed in today’s conflicts and the challenge for the international community is to act more forcefully than before. In looking at the challenges of implementing the human rights policy, it would be noted that many of the issues had to deal with the confrontation with the policymakers (Cohen, 2008).
As the result, the world leaders were started to cooperate in codifying the human rights as the universally recognized regime in the scope of treaties, institutions and norms. Since then, the human rights became institutionalized internationally and many states have integrated human rights concerns into their foreign policies. The linkages between sustainable development, human rights, peace and security have become increasingly clear and widely accepted. Human rights are everyone’s concern. The success of human rights activities depends on an integrated approach in which different policy areas and their relevant instruments are coordinated. Human rights issues must be emphasized into all aspects of foreign policy, including the development of cooperation, security and trade. In this paper, the argument on ‘why governments nowadays should feel obliged to integrate human rights concerns with their security, trade, and diplomatic policies’ would be comprehensively discussed to explain about the cost and risks of integrating the human rights aspect with a state’s foreign policies.

Human Rights and Security

The concern of human rights aspect in the security matter of a state is very important since the world was experiencing some human rights violation in the World War II that led to a realization of protecting the individual’s human rights. This is also crucial to foster the international peace efforts. Even it was mentioned in the UN Charter as one of the purposes of the United Nations to maintain the peace and security in the world. It was stated in the opening sentence of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) affirms that the recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal rights of all human is the foundation of the freedom, justice and peace in the world (United Nations, 1948). It means that the shared values have a solid foundation for the universality of human rights, and the importance of human rights values can be considered as an essential component of a broad security concept that focuses on the individual security and rights.

This is very important for a state to integrate the human rights aspect to its security policies. The aim is to expose and oppose the unlawful detentions that carried out in the name of national security or to countering the terrorism. This is also to protect the individual rights of being a citizen. In the 21st century, the enemy is not a state, but it can be at the level of a group of people. Today’s rebels are ruthless, resourceful, and really skillful at weaving themselves into the fabric of their societies, and even making themselves virtually undetectable until they strike (Galula, 2014). This is just like in the case of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). ISIL has released a video purportedly showing the killing of Japanese hostage Kenji Goto, a respected journalist known for his work covering the suffering of civilians in war zones that went to Syria in last October 2014. The aim was to try to secure Haruna Yukawa, the former Japanese man that was also being a hostage of ISIL (BBC, 2015).

In this case, a nation’s foreign policy regarding to the human rights is critically needed to secure and protect the freedom of a citizen since this is dealing with someone’s life. As stated in the Japan foreign policy affirm that Japan is officially expressing its support for the policy of the US to counter the terrorism (Ishizuka, 2012), Japan would work with the international community to bring those responsible for Mr Goto’s apparent murder before the justice and also expand its support to the countries fighting ISIL. And since one of the foreign policy goals is to promote democracy and human rights in the world, Japan could utilize it as the attempt to embrace the other countries to support the Japan’s effort. It can be seen from the response of some world leaders such as Obama, the US President; David Cameron, the British Prime Minister; Francois Hollande, French President and Tony Abbot, Australian Prime Minister that basically giving their support for the Japan government (BBC, 2015). This is showing that the governments nowadays should really integrate the human right in drafting thier foreign policy as an attempt to secure and protect the freedom of a citizen since this is dealing with someone’s life and also to support its national strategy against terrorism.

Human Rights and Trade

As today’s international trade has been widely dominated by the role of the Multinational Companies (MNC), how the MNC operates its production activity become a major issue to be discussed. The MNC operates in the complex environments that may facing many challenges come up around the areas of the operations. As the consequence, these challenges can undermine the safety and security of the staff and also affecting the human rights of local communities. Regarding to ths situation, the integration between human rights and trade is very important to formulate any policies. Business and human rights, Security Sector Reform (SSR) as well as the wider security and development communities have developed a policy and tools that support the MNC in addressing these challenges (Knowledge Hub, 2015). This kind of development is very important as one of the attempts of the government to integrate the human rights with the trade policies. The aim is to bring the relevant resources and tools together within a coherent and accessible structure which facilitates the problem-solving both at the headquarters and at the field levels. This is just like The Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (VPs) as the example.

VPs were established in 2000 as a multi stakeholder initiative that involves the governments, corporations, and non-governmental organizations that promotes the implementation of a set of principles that guide themining, oil and gas corporations in providing security for their operations in a manner that respects the human rights (U.S Department of State, 2012). The participant governments includes the Norway, Colombia, Netherlands, Canada, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States of America. However, these good practices remain fragmented and are rarely shared between different stakeholder groups, like the on going case in Papua that involves PT. Freeport Indonesia, that also being one of the participant corporations in the VPs.

Unfortunately, being one of the participant corporations does not make Freeport really concern on the human rights aspects in operating the production activity in the field. The results of the investigation and monitoring by the Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM) declared that PT. Freeport Indonesia has violated the human rights in the incident of the collapsing of the Big Gossan tunnel on May, 2013 (Voice of America, 2014). According to the National Commission on Human Rights, PT. Freeport Indonesia allegedly been doing omissions and errors that result in the loss of 28 workers’s live. As the result, the National Comission will sue the parties that responsible in PT. Freeport Indonesia in related with this case, especially the head of the mining engineering, the operations supervisor and the technical manager. The National Commission will also submit a report on the results of the monitoring and investigations of this case to Freeport America through the US Embassy in Jakarta. The other pathetic thing is that according to the National Commission, the Indonesian government seems like did not really assertive in dealing with the case that has killed 28 of Indonesian citizens. This is one of the weaknesses for the government that paid a little attention to the integration of human rights to its trade policies. As the consequence, the case that had been occurred in last two years still did not get any legal clarity.

Human Rights and Diplomacy

Integrating human rights and diplomacy requires a strategic approach that should be grounded in the human rights law and also applied it to the developing law to strengthen its aims and objectives. It also can be described as an important integration between human rights in international law and the public advocacy for human rights that can lead to the progressive development and implementation of human rights norms and standards (Ibrahim, 2014). The human rights diplomacy is a tool that used by the diplomats to advance current national interests as well as to confront the long-standing geopolitical and economic conflict. It offers a unique opportunity to the human rights aspect in the wide-ranging area of diplomatic engagement. This is very important for a nation to integrate the human rights to its state diplomacy. Human rights diplomacy is the utilisation of diplomatic negotiation and persuasion for the specific purpose of promoting and protecting human rights of a nation. Diplomacy could be done by the diplomat in the range of global issues that may affect the life of the citizens and also to secure the freedom and the opportunity of the people (Manurung, 2015). Moreover, through the diplomacy, a state could obtain the power to exercise its foreign policy that has the goal to promote the democracy and the protection on human rights to the world. To achieve that goal, a state needs to utilize four main tools of foreign policy includes the treaty, ambassador, foreign aid, international trade and also the military forces.

The Risk of Integrating Human Rights to the Government Policy

In integrating Human rights to any governmental policies would absolutely has its own risks or challenges. Especially when it is applied to the Moslem, or the majority Moslem countries. Most of the Moslem countries believe that the criteria and standard of for human rights have been drafted based on the western, especially the European standards (Khan, 1999). They believe that those standards are not in line with their religious and national cultures. They claim that since their governments obtain their legitimacy from religion rather than the vote of the people, then they are responsible for protecting Islamic Sharia, rather than the desire of the people. For these governments, the definition and interpretation of Islam is limited to what the government proclaims as its own ideology. As the consequences, any criticism against the government with respect to its human rights violations, such as discrimination based on religion or gender or lack of freedom of expression, is equated with a criticism of Islam

Aristotle and Foreign Policy: An Examination of the Common Good and its Effects in International Affairs

by Stephen Sims

In this essay, Stephen Sims explores the significance of the national interest, understood as the common good, in Aristotle’s political thought.  Aristotle arguably saw the common good as a principle for all ethical thought, including that involving what we would today call the national interest.   In Sims’s view, Aristotle gives a different account than, say, Hans Morgenthau, regarding the place of the national interest. For while Morgenthau makes a deeply impassioned argument on behalf of the national interest with an eye toward alleviating the misery of totalizing war, Aristotle would remind us of the fundamental purpose of the political community: the achievement of the common good. He reminds us that that pursuing the political common good is not the lesser of two evils, but rather a choiceworthy end, perhaps the most choiceworthy end. Finally, he might also remind us that our very concern for justice and virtue is inculcated and practiced within the very political community we so often seek to overcome and look beyond. Read more...

 

Churchill’s Trial: Winston Churchill and the Salvation of Free Government

By Patrick J. Garrity

Larry P. Arnn, President of Hillsdale College, has recently published an important new book, Churchill’s Trial: Winston Churchill and the Salvation of Free Government. This book distills decades of reflection on Churchill by Arnn, who served for several years as research assistant to Martin Gilbert, Churchill’s official biographer (the two men remained close friends and colleagues until Sir Martin’s passing).  Arnn seeks to discover if there was an underlying theme in Churchill’s lengthy public life and voluminous writings, a theme that encompasses both domestic and foreign affairs, and that transcends the tacking of the politician and statesman (Churchill’s critics called it opportunism).  There is, but I leave it to you to read the book and discover for yourselves.  From the standpoint of strategy and diplomacy, however, a few key themes stand out, by no means exhausting the topic. Read More... 

 

The Russian-Hungarian War of 1956  

by Peter W. Schramm 

Peter W. Schramm (1946-2015), long-time Executive Director of the Ashbrook Center at Ashland University, Ohio, the organization which sponsors the Classics of Strategy and Diplomacy, was a refugee with his family from Hungary following the 1956 Soviet invasion of that country.  In 1982, with the contemporary turmoil in Poland as the background, he reflected on the circumstances that led to the Hungarian Revolution, and its course and outcome, as a study in the nature of international politics.  “The Hungarians, who are supposed to have things so well, think back upon 1956, upon a brief period that gives meaning to their existence. It is a fixed point in their universe, to which they refer when they imagine what a better life would be. We will do well, while a satellite country is being broken once again, to remember what happened in 1956.”  Read More...

 

Examining Russia's Nuclear Strategy as it Applies to Europe

by Harrison Menke

In this Master’s thesis for the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Missouri State University, Harrison Menke scrutinizes Russia’s nuclear strategy for Europe through an examination of Russian military documents, military exercises, force procurements, and official statements. He contends that, due to deficiencies in conventional weapons, Russian political and military leaders have concluded that they will be forced to primarily rely on nuclear weapons should NATO and Russia come into conflict. His research pays particular attention to three main questions: 1. How is Russia’s nuclear force posture developing in the near and medium term? 2. Can Russia contain conflict escalation after limited nuclear usage? And 3. What implications does Russia’s limited use strategy have for NATO? Read More...

 

A Reaffirmation of Strategy

by Patrick J. Garrity

In January 2015, age 94, Andrew Marshall retired as Director of ONA, and we are fortunate that this event coincides with the publication of a splendid strategic-intellectual biography, The Last Warrior: Andrew Marshall and the Shaping of Modern American Defense Strategy (Basic Books), written by Andrew Krepinevich and Barry Watts, both of whom worked for Marshall and were close associates of his for many years.  Theirs is not only a history of Marshall’s career and the Office of Net Assessment, but also a major contribution to the history of the strategic thought during the Cold War. Read More...

 

Are We all Clausewitians Now?  Reflections on the Work of John Keegan

by Patrick J. Garrity

“I have not been in a battle; not near one, nor heard one from afar, nor seen the aftermath.”  Thus John Keegan, later Sir John, began his landmark book, The Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo, and the Somme, published in 1976.  Despite this bit of caution, Keegan’s book was immediately hailed as a classic; one that conveyed what the experiences of combat was like for the participants, above all the common soldier.  The Face of Battle kicked off a distinguished public writing career for Keegan, whose death in August 2012 at age 78 generated many tributes to the man who was, as Princeton University’s James M. McPherson noted, widely recognized “as our generation’s foremost military historian.” Read More...

 

The Wall of Alexander: The Quest for a Grand Strategy in the Footsteps of Alexander and Bucephalus 

by Daniel K. Khalessi

During the summer of 2014, as part of his participation in the Yale University Studies in Grand Strategy Seminar, Daniel K. Khalessi retraced Alexander the Great’s campaign through Greece, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and India, to understand his legacy and the region he conquered.  In this essay, Mr. Khalessi offers his reflections on how past human civilizations approached the challenge of managing interdependencies over vast regions. Though two thousand years removed from Alexander’s time, many fundamental challenges of governance remain the same.  In Mr. Khalessi’s judgment, a grand strategy of leadership and governance requires walls – not physical walls, but ideas and institutions that establish, maintain, and regulate the balance between (1) the center and perimeter of a polity; (2) good and evil; and (3) conquest and contribution. Drawing upon ancient and modern biographical accounts; comparisons with other ancient leaders; and observations from the summer journey in the footsteps of Alexander’s campaign, this essay analyzes Alexander through the walls he should have built.  Read More...

 

Geography and World Politics

by Colin Dueck

Becoming the world's only superpower can cause strange dreams. In the case of the United States, which achieved this status over 20 years ago, many who should know better have dreamed that economic interdependence, multilateral institutions, technological change, global democratization, the rise of non-state actors—even Barack Obama's charming personality—will have a transformational effect on world affairs, rendering irrelevant the geopolitics underlying American national security. But geopolitical competition between major world powers obviously continues, and these dreams, which are recognizably liberal dreams, remain delusive and dangerous. Read More...

 

In Defense of Classical Geopolitics

by Mackubin Thomas Owens

THE FORMULATION OF national strategy is influenced by a wide variety of factors, including the past history of the nation; the nature of the regime; the ideology, religion, and culture; economic factors, to include technology; and governmental and military institutions. When Albert Einstein remarked that “politics is harder than physics,” he had in mind the enormous number of such variables that the statesman and strategist must consider when describing international phenomena and developing prescriptive measures. Read More...

 

Commentary on Books and Other Works Useful in the Study of International Relations

by Harold W. Rood

The 20th Century is an era worth study for an understanding of international politics because of the great conflict amongst nations as well as those within nations. But that century was hardly different from those that preceded it and is hardly likely to be different from those that follow it. For politics is at the heart of how groups of human beings arrange themselves or are arranged to achieve some order and predictability in the course of human en- deavors, whether they are fortunate enough to govern themselves or must submit to government by a special designate few. Those who, by right, govern themselves, do so most usually through representatives, freely chosen, whose actions take place within arenas of conflict, that is, politics, reflecting the differences of view and pur- pose existing amongst those being repre- sented. Read More...

 

On Strategic Thinking: Patterns in Modern History

by Christopher C. Harmon

Strategy is the organization and application of power—especially military power—to achieve national policy objectives. Because it is not an exact science, strategy has a "history" only in inexact ways: there has been continual change but little that resembles true development in strategy. Strategy is part art as well as part science. And like painting, the art to which Winston Churchill compared it, strategy has moved through time less along a line of development than in angles, curves, and loops. The old and even the primitive in strategy may be rediscovered and successfully re-presented, perhaps with a new twist; the armor battles in the Middle Eastern sands during the Gulf War recall those of a half-century earlier. By corollary, the very new in strategy may prove to be imaginative but also ineffective and transient. Read More...

 

Geography and Politics

by Christopher Flannery

"God," as John Locke says, "gave the World to Men in Common." But every political community begins by acquiring and establishing dominion over a particular part of the world. Men must acquire property for the sake of life and of a good life, for which reason Aristotle says that "the art of acquiring property is a part of managing the household," or what we call economics. This sounds tranquil and domestic enough. But the art of acquiring property is a species of the art of war. The art of war, from this point of view, is "a natural art of acquisition," acquisition of the natural necessities and utilities of life. The statesman must be concerned with acquisition of territory for the sake of the existence and the self sufficiency of his political community. The primary concern of politics with geography lies here: in the necessity of acquiring and securing territory for the sake of political existence. To paraphrase the Federalist, the first act of politics is the exercise of the different and unequal faculties of acquiring territory. Read More...

 

The American Revolution and Regime Change: Exploring the Indirect Approach

by Patrick J. Garrity

“It is a common observation here that our cause is the cause of all mankind, and that we are fighting for their liberty by defending our own.” Benjamin Franklin’s statement, written from Paris in 1779, was indeed commonplace among the American Revolutionary leaders and among the progressive thinkers of Europe. But what precisely did this mean? How exactly did American liberty relate to that of other peoples? Did Americans have any responsibility to do more than defend their own liberties, to work or fight actively for the liberties others? Read More...

 

Jefferson, the Barbary Regencies, and Regime Change: The Attraction and Limits of Limited Liability

by Patrick J. Garrity

For the first few decades of its existence as an independent nation, the United States faced a threat to its commercial interests in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic from the Barbary “pirates” – popularly known as corsairs – who sailed under the auspices of four Islamic polities on the North African coast (Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers and Morocco). For centuries the corsairs had seized merchant vessels whose nation of origin had not purchased protection from the Barbary rulers. They enslaved their crews until ransomed. From 1801-1805 the United States waged a political-military campaign to compel Tripoli to cease its depredations against American ships while simultaneously dissuading the other polities from joining the conflict. Read More...

 

She Goes Not Abroad, in Search of Monsters to Destroy

by Patrick J. Garrity

On July 4, 1821, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams delivered an oration on the Declaration of Independence that contained the famous aphorism about American foreign policy: “Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled, there will her [America’s] heart, her benedictions and her prayers be. But she goes not abroad, in search of monsters to destroy.” Adams’ argument became the point of departure for an entire strain of thought about American foreign policy. But to call his views “isolationist” would be too limited, as would other commonly used terms such as “realist” or “anti-interventionist.” The Address clearly warned America against going abroad in search of monstrous regimes to destroy – Adams meant what he said – but neither did he assume thereby that monsters should be given an entirely free hand or that America must sit passively by, merely thinking happy thoughts. Read more...

 

The High Plain, Yet Dizzy Ground of Influence: American Views on Regime Change and the European Revolution of 1848

by Patrick J. Garrity

This Working Paper examines American attitudes towards the European Revolutions of 1848 and the national debate over whether and how, to support foreign political reforms and regime change. This foreign policy debate was in many respects the most “modern” of those which took place during the American Republic’s first century, in that the protagonists anticipated many of the arguments and policy options that later emerged when the United States became a world power. Most of the proposals for an active U.S. response to the Revolutions of 1848 (but not all) stopped short of military intervention and focused on the ability of the United States to shape world public opinion in a way that would facilitate the cause of human rights and liberalized regimes. Rufus Choate, a leading Massachusetts politician and orator, aptly captured this perspective when he described the approach of his friend, Senator and later Secretary of State Daniel Webster. Read More...

 

The American Regime Change Debates of the 1890s: A Matter of Principle and Interest

by Patrick J. Garrity

The late 19th century was a time of great hope and anxiety for the United States. Several decades of extraordinary growth had transformed the United States into the world’s leading industrial power, yet a fi- nancial panic in 1893 plunged the nation into a major economic depression. The American people were a generation removed from the divisions created by the Civil War (setting apart the continuing mistreatment of African-Americans), but potentially serious and violent fault lines had emerged between country and city, East and West, and labor and capital. Americans watched with con- cern as the major European powers scrambled for new colonies and influence in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Read More...

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