India launched a nation wide Family Planning Programmed in 1952. India is the first country in the world to launch such a programme. A separate department of Family Planning was created in 1966 in the ministry of health. In 1977, the Janata Government formulated a new population policy ruling out compulsion. The acceptance of the programme was made purely voluntary. Also the Janata government named the FP dept. as Department of Family Welfare. The allocation for these programmes was just 0.1 crore in First Five year plan. It has increased to 3256 crores in the seventh plan.
Family Welfare Programme
It is a Centrally sponsored programme. For this, the states receive 100 per cent assistance from Central Government. The current policy is to promote family planning on the basis of voluntary and informed acceptance with full community participation. The emphasis is on a 2 child family. Also, the emphasis is on spacing methods along with terminal methods, The services are taken to every doorstep in order to motivate families to accept the small family norm
Goals of the Programme:
Family welfare programme has laid down the following long term goals to be achieved by the year 2000 AD:
1. Reduction of birth rate from 29 per 1000 (in 1992) to 21 by 2000 AD
2. Reduction of death rate from 10 (in 1992) to 9 per 1000.
3. Raising couple protection rate from 43.3 (in 1990) to 60 per cent.
4. Reduction in average family size from 4.2 (in 1990) to 2.3.
5. Decrease in Infant mortality rate from 79 (in 1992) to less than 60 per 1000 live births.
o. Reduction of Net Reproduction Rate from 1.48 (in 1981) to 1.
Eligible couples, target couples and couple protection rate:
Family Welfare Programme can be successful only when it reaches those who are eligible and also those who are the targets.
Eligible couples: An eligible couple is a currently married couple, the wife being in the reproductive age group i.e. 15 to 45 year. It is estimated that there are 150 to 180 eligible couples per 1000 population in India. Presently, there are about 144 million eligible couples in India. These couples are in need of family planning services.
Eligible couples are approached by Health Workers by house to house visit in PHC area. Motivation is also done at dispensaries, clinics and hospitals. They are given contraceptives free of cost. Also sterilizations are done free of cost
Target couples: They are couples who have had 2 to 3 living children. Family planning was largely directed to such couples. The definition of target couple has been gradually enlarged to include families with one child or even newly married couple. The aim is to develop acceptance of the idea of family planning from the earliest possible stage.
Couple protection rate (CPR)
It is defined as the percentage of eligible couples effectively protected against child birth by one or other methods of family planning. CPR is an indicator of the prevalence of contraceptive practice in the community. The long term demographic goal is to achieve couple protection rate of 60 per cent by the year 2000 AD.
Strategies of Family Welfare Programme (FWP)
1. Integration with health services: Family welfare programme (FWP) has been integrated with other health services instead of being a separate service.
2. Integration with maternity and child health: FWP has been integrated with maternity and child health (MCH). Public are motivated for post delivery sterilization, abortion and use of contraceptives.
3. Concentration in rural areas: FWP are concentrated more in rural areas at the level of subentries and primary health centers. This is in addition to hospitals at district, state and central levels.
4. Literacy: There is a direct correlation between illiteracy and fertility. So stress and priority is given for girl's education. Fertility rate among educated females is low.
5. Breast feeding: Breast feeding is encouraged. It is estimated that about 5 million births per annum can be prevented through breast feeding.
6. Raising the age for marriage: Under the child marriage restraint bill (1978), the age of marriage has been raised to 21 years for males and 18 years for females. This has some impact on fertility.
7. Minimum needs programme: It was launched in the Fifth Five Year Plan with an aim to raise the economical standards. Fertility is low in higher income groups. So fertility rate can be lowered by increasing economical standards.
8. Incentives: Monetary incentives have been given in family planning programmes, especially for poor classes. But these incentives have not been very effective. So the programme must be on voluntary basis.
9. Mass media: Motivation through radio, television, cinemas, news papers, puppet shows and folk dances is an important aspect of this programme.
Free sample essay on Family Planning. Family Planning has been adopted as our national policy and a lot of money is being spent on it. Yet we are far from achieving our targets. India’s population is increasing fast in comparison to its dwindling and depleting resources.
Family Planning has been adopted as our national policy and a lot of money is being spent on it. Yet we are far from achieving our targets. India’s population is increasing fast in comparison to its dwindling and depleting resources. This rapid growth of our population has resulted in a very high pressure on our resources of food, employment, housing, clothing, education and alleviation of poverty. With the phenomenal advancement in science, technology, medicine, health and physical-care, the mortality rate has come down considerably but the rate of birth has not come down commensurately. In the absence of effective control and check on our population, all our Five Year Plans and developmental schemes are bound to fail. As a result, about half of our population has been living below the poverty line. Millions of our fellow citizens are deprived of basic necessities of life while the gap between the rich and the poor has been increasing.
In spite of huge campaigns and well organised propaganda, the advantages of a small family have not been accepted by the masses. India consists mainly of villages and rural population. About 80% of its population lives in villages. They are mostly ignorant, uneducated and superstitious. They still regard children as gifts from God. They believe in luck and fate and believe that every newborn child brings its own luck. As such, they cannot be motivated to have Planned Parenthood with ‘two children’ norm. The much desired people’s participation in the family planning and welfare programmes is not there. The majority of rural masses have yet to accept the various contraceptive methods of family planning and family welfare.
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It is in keeping with our democratic set-up that the family welfare programme is a voluntary one. People are free to choose their own methods of family planning that suit them best. People are being involved in the movement through social institutions, voluntary agencies, social workers and people’s representatives. It is good that no coercive measures are adopted but lack of people’s involvement to a desired level has been a real source of concern to the people behind the movement. It is high time that some mildly drastic steps are also taken to curb our ever-increasing population. Unless and until we have proper check on our population growth, it is almost impossible to improve the quality of life and standard of living. The programme of family planning needs to be vigorously pursued.
During the Emergency some drastic and coercive measures were adopted, which were resisted by the people. They also resulted in the overthrow of the government, headed by Mrs. India Gandhi, in the general election. Therefore, it has been made totally voluntary. The programme includes maternal and child healthcare, their nutrition and family welfare. The various schemes related to family planning and welfare is implemented through the state governments, for which the Centre provides complete assistance. There is a network of primary health centres and sub-centres, in the villages of the country to popularize the movement. The number of these centres is being increased further. Nimrods or condoms, oral pills, contraceptive jelly, creams, etc. are being distributed free of charge through these health centres and other agencies.
These are also available at subsidized rates at various retail outlets, chemist shops and pharmaceutical establishments.
Much improved sterilization and tubectomies operation facilities now exist at various hospitals, dispensaries, and primary health-centres throughout the country. Special camps and campaigns are also being organised in villages and towns for this purpose. Financial and other incentives are also given to the people who voluntarily undergo these operations. Research activities are going on at Family Welfare Training and Research Centre, Mumbai, Central Health Education Bureau, New Delhi, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi in the areas of demography, reproductive biology and fertility control. In order to provide maternal and child health-care services to more and more women and babies, the post-natal programme has now been extended to over 1000 hospitals spread in villages and towns all over the country.
The raising of the minimum age of marriage to 18 for girls and 21 for boys, coupled with the legalization of termination of undesired pregnancies have been steps in the right direction. The family planning and welfare programme in our country was launched officially in 1952 and since then, there has been commendable progress. There is a good deal of consciousness among the educated urban people about family planning and use of contraceptives and yet we can learn something more from China in this respect.
No doubt there is much and appreciable awareness among the people about family planning and mother and child healthcare. More and more people have come to realise the many positive advantages that are there in a small and well- planned family, and yet there is still a vast gap between awareness and acceptance of the various measures of family planning. To bridge this gap there should be a number of incentives and disincentives. A useful and progressive family planning programme should necessarily seek the help of more and more voluntary agencies, social workers, Panchayati- members, village medical practitioners, caste elders, religious groups and village nurses and dais. What we need is an integrated and methodical approach to the problem.